Low-temperature pyrolysis is a process in which ground waste is thermally decomposed. This process occurs at temperatures between 400° C and 850°C. The advantage of low-temperature pyrolysis over traditional waste incineration is, first and foremost, its effectiveness in preventing environmental pollution.
Pyrolysis technology can be used to recycle a wide variety of waste constituents that cannot be disposed of, such as car tyres, waste oils, plastics and sludge. After low-temperature pyrolysis, no biologically active substances remain in the waste, so pyrolysis residues can be stored without any risk of harming the environment. The ash produced in this process has a high density, which significantly reduces the volume of waste subject to further storage.
Thus, the advantages of low-temperature pyrolysis include:
easy storage and transportation of pyrolysis residues
considerable reduction of waste volume
production of energy that can be used for heating and electricity generation.
Low-temperature pyrolysis units and plants that recycle municipal solid waste have been in operation in many countries around the world since the mid-1970s. It was at that time that the production of energy and heat from rubber, plastic, and other waste products by low-temperature pyrolysis was considered as a fairly promising source of energy resources.
Japan attaches great importance to this process. However, it should be taken into account that in countries where segregated waste collection technologies exist, not all waste is processed by low-temperature pyrolysis, but only a certain part of it. In this regard, the efficiency of this method of solid waste disposal is much lower there than in Russia, because our waste processing plants usually receive mixed waste, which contains a lot of harmful substances.